Khimsa: Waste Management in Ladakh

In January 2014, I discovered one of my lasting roles as a foreigner in India for the first time. While adjusting to a different lifestyle, culture and language, I had to adjust my perspective on many difficult topics. On top of this, as all women everywhere know, the inevitable time of the month makes everything just a little more complicated. Not knowing what to do with my menstrual waste in this new context, I discreetly asked my host mom how to dispose of it. With a coy smile, she motioned for me to follow her. She brought me to the side window of our house, and with a little giggle, motioned for me to chuck it. I looked down and saw a massive heap of biohazardous and non-biodegradable waste, much of which was used sanitary napkins and pads. A stray dog was munching on an unidentified, inedible object. That was when I switched to a reusable Diva Cup in order to minimize my impact on waste production as a foreign woman in India.

Since then, I’ve lived and traveled throughout several parts of rural and urban India and have encountered the many ways in which people manage their waste by either burning, throwing on the street or out train windows, dumping in streams and rivers, or my favorite, finding creative ways to repurpose. This is often the most challenging realization both while living in India and upon returning to the U.S.: the different systems, infrastructures, and mentalities towards waste management, and our refuse piling higher and higher every day, whether visible or not.

Photo from
Plastic buildup at famous tourist destination, Pangong Tso Lake. Photo: The Better India.

Ladakh, one of the world’s most pristine and previously untouched landscapes, has in recent decades been relentlessly assailed by the influx of tourism and the increased waste that accompanies it. Due to the rough terrain and weather conditions, transporting large amounts of waste for proper disposal is unfeasible and, as there was minimal waste before the tourism industry boomed, there is not much infrastructure in place for the amount of waste domestic and foreign visitors produce. Even locals have started to produce much more waste in recent decades due to convenience, changes in food patterns, increased access and lifestyle changes due to exposure to the global market.

In 2018, Ladakh welcomed nearly three lakh (300,000) eager and adventurous visitors, bringing with them approximately sixteen tons of trash production every day (Dutta, 2018). The Snow Leopard Conservancy, India Trust (SLC-IT) works in collaboration with tourism companies, Leh government officials, local schools, monasteries, rural communities and the Border Roads Organization to educate and implement not only sustainable waste management practices, but also to minimize waste production on both a local level and in regards to the tourist population.

Herd of blue sheep spotted near Mangu village. Photo: Jigmet Dadul.

Last month, I had the opportunity to accompany SLC-IT on a field visit to Mangu village, a beautiful valley along the Indus River, cast in ambient light due to the conglomerate rocks towering on each side which hosts herds of ibex, blue sheep, and Ladakhi urial, stalked in shadow by the elusive snow leopard. Naturally, this gorgeous community invites many tourists during peak season for wildlife sightings and a taste of local village life through SLC-IT’s award winning Himalayan Homestays program.

During this visit, the SLC-IT team painted 25 barrels donated by 81 Road Construction Company Border Roads Organization (81 RCC BRO), designating proper waste disposal. After three days of painting and engaging in conversation over frequent chai breaks with curious community members, the SLC-IT team had the opportunity to attend a community gathering at the local school. The gathering was a celebration of education and the achievements of Mangu students, which segued into a community-wide conversation about waste management education and the responsibility the community has for the future integrity of Mangu’s natural beauty. A procedure was established for the strategic placement of the barrels, as well as the proper and timely disposal of their contents. Where might their contents end up? U.S. multinational company Tesla has one possible solution.

SLC-IT team having fun with paint!

With all this waste, whether or not it is properly disposed in beautified barrels, Leh Deputy District Commissioner Avny Lavasa has implemented Bangaluru-based Tesla’s “BlackHOLE” to literally swallow Leh’s increasing garbage. With the exception of glass, this BlackHOLE uses “super plasma heat decomposition technology” to convert non-biodegradable waste into ash, without using any electricity or fuel (Wangchuk, 2018). Additionally, the Border Roads Organization has committed to repurposing the ash in the construction of better roads throughout Ladakh (Wangchuk, 2018). Although this solves the problem of the massive heaps of waste with no place to go, it spawns countless more issues to consider. Out of sight is out of mind, but the BlackHOLE’s resulting ash production will continue to adversely affect the atmosphere and air quality in Ladakh, filling the crisp mountain air and roads with carcinogenic chemicals and all the waste will simply continue to circulate in different form. For SLC-IT’s intents and purposes, the problem of waste production is the issue that demands the most attention.

Tsewang Dolma leading a discussion on waste management to Matho students.

On November 28, myself and the SLC-IT education team, Thinless, Dolma, and Nikshep conducted an interactive, experiential workshop on waste management and environmental awareness at our pilot school, Government High School Matho. During this workshop, students played educational games with everyday examples of trash. We facilitated engaging discussions on the issues of waste in Ladakh, and the students articulated their responsibility to practice the 5 R’s: Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, Repair, and Recycle.

Thinless and Nikshep representing “non-recyclable” and “recyclable” waste during our waste segregation relay race.

Students learned what different everyday items are made from, the Earth’s renewable and non-renewable resources, and how to properly segregate waste. This was my first deliverable of my project, and where our hard work came to fruition. We ended the workshop feeling revived and hopeful, as well as brainstorming ideas for future workshops with Matho.

Working in environmental conservation can be a dark and even hopeless endeavor, knowing full well that the massive, Earth-wide challenge is way beyond a fun day of playing with garbage with local kids. Seeing kids get passionate about the Earth and their individual impact, however, that’s where we find hope in this black hole.

Leading discussion on the impact of waste on the environment.


  • Wangchuk, Rinchen Norbu. “Tesla’s ‘BlackHOLE’ May Soon Swallow Up Mountains of Trash in Ladakh. Here’s How!” The Better India, 27 Aug. 2018.
  • Dutta, Sanjay. “Soon, Tesla’s BlackHOLE to gobble up waste in Ladakh.” Times of India, 27 Aug. 2018.

Alexandra is honored to serve in the high mountains of Ladakh, combining her passion for religion and environmental science to help achieve the mission of SLC-IT. After studying in Varanasi through the Benjamin A. Gilman Scholarship, Alexandra participated in two summers of the Critical Language Scholarship in Jaipur while volunteering at a home for survivors of domestic violence. Alexandra also studied West African Islam and gender in Dakar, Senegal, while interning at an artist colony for at-risk youth of Dakar. She has facilitated asset-based community development in rural Kenya, volunteered in a mental health hospital in Guatemala, and was the Resident Director for the National Security Language Initiative for Youth in Pune. Prior to AIF, Alexandra taught outdoor environmental science in the alpine forests of Southern California. She is very eager to help SLC-IT create a biodiversity park to continue inspiring humans’ connection to nature and responsibility towards wildlife conservation.

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One thought on “Khimsa: Waste Management in Ladakh

  1. I love this so much!! Especially adding the “refuse” to the traditional 3 R model of thinking about sustainability.

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